Thursday, January 31, 2013

Kabir das ji ka Doha


Radhe Radhe
Amit Chopra


Wednesday, January 30, 2013

how to list software installed + LINUX and HP UX

Hi Friends,

We always require softwares, packages or rpm in our systems or servers to be installed. but before installing any sfotware. we have to list or check also that the software does exist or already installed. and If yes then with which version. some times all related files also we have to see. so for the same, we need to use below command on HP UX on HP servers and RHEL linux.

on HP UX

#swlist |grep -i "name of the software"

it will show the name of the software installed with a very small detail.

#swlist -l fileset "name of the software"

Here the same command will bring  complete set of file related to the specfic software of enquiry or getting enquired.

#swlist -l product "name of the software"

yes for installation of package, we can use

#swinstall -s "complete depot path"

in HP UX directory can can be made with keeping all software or patch in one directory and by running ./create_depot executeble file.depot creation will be donw. then in a single go the installation of all software inside dpot will install.

yes one more thing before instaling any software in HP UX, check the software/Patch/Kernel patch/SS patch/CO command patches, they need a reboot of system or not. it can be checked before download as well from HP side.

an exapmple is below

#swlist |grep -i fault
  ProviderDefault                       B.11.31.0803   Select WBEM Providers
  SysFaultMgmt                          C.  HPUX System Fault Management
  SFM-CORE                              C.03.00.06     HPUX System Fault Management
#swlist -l product SysFaultMgmt
# Initializing...
# Contacting target ""...
# Target:  :/
# SysFaultMgmt                  C.  HPUX System Fault Management
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE         C.07.02.01     HPUX System Fault Management
#swlist -l fileset SysFaultMgmt
# Initializing...
# Contacting target ""...
# Target:  :/
# SysFaultMgmt                          C.  HPUX System Fault Management
# SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE                 C.07.02.01     HPUX System Fault Management
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.CTR_PRO_COMM    C.07.02.01     Control Provider Common Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.CTR_PRO_COREIA  C.07.02.01     Control Provider Platform Specific Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.EMT_DOC         C.07.02.01     EMT Online help fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.EMT_MAN         C.07.02.01     EMT Man pages fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.EVM_PRO_COMM    C.07.02.01     EVM CIM Indication Provider Common Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.EVM_PRO_COREIA  C.07.02.01     EVM CIM Indication Provider Platform Specific Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.EVWEB_COREIA    C.07.02.01     EvWEB core platform specific fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.EVWEB_DOC       C.07.02.01     EvWEB Online help fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.EVWEB_GUI_COMM  C.07.02.01     EvWEB GUI common fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.EVWEB_GUI_IA    C.07.02.01     EvWEB GUI platform specific fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.EVWEB_MAN       C.07.02.01     EvWEB Man pages fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.FMD_PRO_COMM    C.07.02.01     Filter Metadata Instance Provider Common Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.FMD_PRO_COREIA  C.07.02.01     Filter Metadata Instance Provider Platform Specific Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.GS_COMM         C.07.02.01     General Services Common Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.HAS-IA          C.07.02.01     Hardware Access Services IA
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.HS_PRO_COMM     C.07.02.01     HealthState Instance Provider Common Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.HS_PRO_COREIA   C.07.02.01     HealthState Instance Provider Platform Specific Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.MISC_COMM       C.07.02.01     MISC Common Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.MISC_COREIA     C.07.02.01     MISC Platform Specific Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.MISC_TOOLS      C.07.02.01     MISC Tools Fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.SFMUI-PROPPAGE  C.07.02.01     SFM property pages fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.SFM_MAN         C.07.02.01     SFM Man pages fileset
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.SFM_PRO_COMM    C.07.02.01     SysFaultMgmt Provider Module COMMON
  SysFaultMgmt.SFM-CORE.SFM_PRO_IA      C.07.02.01     SysFaultMgmt Provider Module IA

It will show the version.


#rpm -qa |grep -i "name of the package"

it will list the packages and libraried installed with.

rpm -qal |grep -i gnome

it will list the complete path and location of packages installed. "Thanks Ritu and Kundan for telling me this"

[root@localhost ~]# rpm -qal |grep -i gnome |more

#rpm -ivh "name of the package with complete path"

thos will install the package with verbose and details, but it always asks for dependant files. so we should go with yum.

or we can go local installation of RPMs.

Love sharing
Amit Chopra


Tuesday, January 29, 2013

How to Verify and Install patches on HP UX

Hi Friends,

To remove bugs or to keep the system up to date, we have to apply patches. These patches are very useful, helpful at application level too, Hardware level, to upgrade the Kernel, to keep in track.

the command we can use to verify the patch status or current status of the server is :-

#swverify \*

this command will verify complete system patch level and also check the warning and error at patch level.

before applying any patch, we should have full backup of server Ignite backup, File system backup through fbackup. then we should plan for the patch application.
Every patch at download time from HP can be checked that, if it needs a reboot of server or not. If yes then go with complete palnning. sometimes the patch can cause some issue also ad then the system will not boot up.
you can have backup of kernel also with :-

#kconfig command, keeping your current kernel config.

yes do remember that Kernel patch application needs a reboot.

to verify and install the patches we can use below command :-

#swinstall -px  autoselect_dependencies=true -s /tmp/depot

to simply install the patch or software, you can use :-

#swinstall -s /tmp/hhdsghsd.depot

you can create a directory called depot and then use that directory to complete all patch upgrade in one time or in one go. e other options too. which can be used for other purpose.

you have o use tab and arrow keys, in action tab, select install. or there ar

after this, the server will reboot and you can check the state or warning or error with

#swverify \*

Thanks for the time. Its nice to see your visit again.

Love Sharing
Amit Chopra


Gateway not pinging + LINUX

HI Friends,

Today, My collegue Kundan helped me in resolving an issue of Network. we have configured th IP of linux server properly.
# service network restart

was alos giving proper output, NO DHCP was eanble. firewall was also off.  the file :-

# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-script/ifcfg-eth0 was also giving proper o/p.

the ONBOOT was YES,
GATEWAY was proper,
IP was there.
but GATEWAY was not responding, when we were pinging it or when we were trying to reach it.

We were remotely supporting, we later thought and Kundan suggested that may be the cable is not plugged in. we checked with the physical team there. They said, yes we have only connected one cable to ILO port only and not network or other cable is connected. so due to this only, the Gateway was not reachable. it s a good learning, i have today.
we should check physically also. later when wire got connected properly. the same server was pinging from outside also and was accessible through putty too.

Friends, please share your experience of Network not reachable in LINUX or HP UX.

Love Sharing
Amit Chopra

Monday, January 28, 2013

How to change VG state HP UX & LINUX

Hi Friends,

Below are some options which we can use for changing Volume Group in HP UX or LINUX.

# vgchange -a n /dev/vg03 # Deactivate volume group
# vgchange -c y /dev/vg03 # Enable volume group for HA cluster
# vgchange -c y -S y /dev/vg03 # Enable volume group for HA cluster and mark as sharable
# vgchange -a e /dev/vg03 # Activate volume group in exclusive mode
# vgchange -a s /dev/vg03 # Activate volume group in shared mode
Activate all volume groups; activate marked for membership in a HA cluster in exclusive mode:
# vgchange -a y
Activate all volumes, marked for membership in a HA cluster in exclusive mode:
# vgchange -a e

Love Sharing
Amit Chopra


Sunday, January 27, 2013

How benefit Life is with a positive attitude?

Love Love Love

Happiness Happiness Happiness

Laugh Laugh Laugh

Fun Fun Fun

Madness Madness Madness

Give Give Give

Work Work Work

Dance Dance Dance

Faith Faith Faith

Prayer Prayer Prayes


I dont know from where should I start, but my love is my happiness, happiness is equal to laughing at every moment of life even it is sorrow or sadness or happiest moment of life. Fun is the part of every thing, if fun is not there then life is tasteless, so enjoy enjoy enjoy.
Yes Madness of love, Family, Parents happiness, for their smile, for their proud on us, for their huge or everest love on us. it is their grace, we are on this earth living this beautiful life. giving love not expecting is being a god, yes we can be god also, as we are part of him, we should foget what we have given to others like that almighty or Great GOD after giving forgets. that's he is so good and loving to us. work like an ant, as it doesn't stop until all food is collected for next six months. Work with each other, as we all play a role in gr8 almighty play. It is he only, who knows what we are made for, we all work for him. as he has to take care of us and his work also.
Dance, yes dance with being lost into it, lost in the inner self, lost for the love of others, love for positivity, Dance for removing all illness all negtivity, Faith in yourself, Faith in Him , Fath in your dance, Faith in others, Faith is like having or putting faith on GOD, because what is your will never
be lost, faith on your self to work until you acheive your goal, and then run again for known journey. Prayers for everyone's better life, for evreyone who is on the arth is living life, breathing, praying that it, he , she anyone live life with full love and affection and give love to others.

I love you my Family, My love, My lord, My friends, every brothers my sisters, every human being on earth.
Love all.


The life is a Race

The race is sometimes a life,
 or the life becomes a race?

This seems a question in my mind has taken place and this doubt is resting until i give a solution to it. I found my self sometimes no where in between. and sometimes i find my self with lot of responsibilitis and load on my shoulders.

Running for learning so many things at a time,
running for doing so many things in a single day,

24 hous looks less and, heart wishes that one day should have 48 hours.
But no it is not possible, i think hours and hours.

Life seems an aim sometime, when i want to enjoy and live it.
and Aims seems as Life, as they have to be achieved.

Where I am now, a Machine i have become, or A demand box.
who has to fulfill all dreams and live life as well.

But how funny this situation is, when someone is not running for aims then he is not living, when only living then he has no aims.

LOL, the aims and Life should go beside or together.

work to acheive love, my beloved, my home. then it seems yes life is moving in correct direction.
when ienjoying then evey moment seems gr8, big and fulfill of joys and happiness.

These are two sides of mirror, its how we see it. Be positive and loving work or work for love then the life seems easy.

God bless all of us.
Best Regards
Amit Chopra

Activity in HP UX prompt

Hi Friends,

There are many things which we can perform from HPUX> of hp ux operating system. as the system loads, then boots EFI manager then EFI shell and then boots HP UX. here we can interrupt the system and get into hpux prompt.

1. We can go into single user mode.
2. we can check the kernel avarilable, we can boot with backup of vmunix.
3. we can check the list of files and directory, using ll command.
4. using boot vmunix -lq from hp ux prompt, we can boot without checking quorum disk.
5. we can boot inot maintenance mode using

hpux> hpux -is

or hpux > hpux -vmunix  -lm

It is good to work and check the option available.

6. Yes, one more when we boot into single user mode, we cannot use vgdisplay command until and unless vg is activated.
we should have to activate vg, using

#vgchange -a y vg00

then we can run vgdisplay.

after this you can mount all of your directories which are in /etc/fstab list for vg00.

7. yes, the NFS mount point will not mount, as for this that service has to be restarted.
8. single user mode can be bring in use for maintenance activity of VGs. reseting lost password. etc.

please share your learnings of single user mode too. I am trying to learn more on it.

Thanks and love sharing
Amit Chopra

Friday, January 25, 2013

How to install Red Hat Linux

Appreciate and Thanks for your visits and Comments. Very good response, I am gettng on my sharing. please write if you find my blog useful. Will try to improve on your comments.

*   TEN Steps to install Red Hat Linux.
** STEP BY STEP installation of LINUX with screenshots to make it easy to understand and do.

1.       Once you have made the virtual machine on Oracle Virtual Box, (as mentioned in the link ) you can start creating your Linux Machine.
when we are creating the Linux Machine through DVD or USB device on Server or a physical Hardware or Laptop. the you may need to set DVD boot first in BIOS. the device then will show from 3rd step of linux installation. which is shown here.
Below first two steps are only for virtual box. and after these two steps, steps are same for installation of Linux every where. The way in which we can browse and assign the DVD to this machine is shown below.

2.       Next if we want to assign two network devices to our virtual machine or Linux machine in this case, as we are creating. Below we have chosen two network adaptors. Attached to HOST only adaptor, and then select virtual host only adaptor. next screen will be of installation and boot. by pressing enter key. your system will bot by DVD or ISO. here you can use also to upgrade Kernel and to go to single user mode also.
    3. Here you can start the verification test of the disk or you can skip this step, if you know that the ISO which you have is fine and working. I have skipped as I knew.
 4.  You should be fallen to below screen now.

5. After pressing next, you will be fallen to choose English language.

6.  You can skip using skip option and then you will be fallen to below step to choose default layout, or to remove every partition.
7. As the step proceeds, we can go with choosing the IP of the machine. The IPs we want to keep is can be decided now or later any time after installation. I have kept for my machine, as my windows machine IP is and gateway is

8. After pressing ok on modification of IP address or addresses with their gateways. If you have some DNS server of yours then you can write their IPs as well.

9. After this you have to choose your time zone and then press next for writing or keeping root password .


 10. Next window is to choose the packages or software you want to install now itself. It is very useful to customize now. We can go with our requirement. Or we can mount the same dvd later for installation for RPMs when needed.

After this we have to press next-next and then installation will start.
After this, the installation will finish within 15-30 min. Now system will ask for reboot and for some other feature enablement. You can skip if not needed or use them, it is on you. System ill reboot again and will boot properly. And you will be fallen on your Linux machine.

Love Sharing
Thanks and Best Regards
Amit Chopra

how to create SWAP online HP UX 11.31


We got a call for increasing swap online two days back. i was not aware of this thta how to do it. so taken help of Great Mr. Google, and HP docs to read about it.

finally tried the same and got the result of swapinfo -tam proper or correct. we did it as swap was getting fully utilized and we need to add the swap. we made it like a file system and then mounted the same on swap with a priority of 2. as 1st was the priority of swap which was made at the time of installation of server.


before creation of swap space check whether you have space with you in any VG, as we can make swap on any VG (eg. if we have vg00 and vg01 only) then we can make swap on any of these VG. keeping in mind the performance of a VG and I/O also. so it is also good if we create swap file on second VG or VG which is not too much loaded.


create an LV as required like 2 GB.

#lvcreate -L 2048 -n swap2 vg02

#swapon -p 2 /dev/vg02/swap2

now put an entry in /etc/fstab \, like below:-

/dev/vg02/swap2     swap2   pir=2  0 0

save the file using :wq!

and come out. now #mount -a or #mount swap2

now you can see the added space in swapinfo -tam output.

#swapinfo -tam

Thanks for the day,
Cheers love sharing
Thanks a lot for your visits.


Thursday, January 24, 2013

How to modify an LV and VG RHEL and HP UX

Thanks My freinds for your visits and comments. It always feels great to learn, share and gain from and with you.

How to deactivate a Volume group and a Logical volume?

Deactivating a VG is :-

#vgchange -a n vg01

If we want to Remove cluster awareness from a VG is :-

#vgchange -c n vg01

then we should deactivate a VG

#vgchange -a n vg01

Deactivate an LV logical volume, before removing it is advised.

In my case, i have create usr file system on another VG on my oracle virtual BOX.

[root /]#
[root /]# lvremove /dev/mapper/vgdb-usr
Do you really want to remove active logical volume usr? [y/n]: y^C
  Logical volume usr not removed
[root /]#
[root /]#
[root /]# lvchange -a n /dev/mapper/vgdb-usr
[root /]# lvremove /dev/mapper/vgdb-usr
  Logical volume "usr" successfully removed
[root /]#
now you should remove a VGif needed or demand of the situation.

Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Creating VM on Oracle Virtual Box

Thanks for your visit friends, it feels very good on your visit. Thanks.

Ten simple steps to create Virtual machine on your Window Machine.
1.       Below are the requirements for creating Virtual Machine on your Laptop. 
      a.       Your machine should have good RAM i.e. minimum 4 GB for good performance, My machine is windows on which I have installed oracle VM tool.
b.      Made my system 64 bit OS for full or total consumption or utilization of RAM on laptop/Computer, otherwise will be able of using only 3 GB or less than 3 GB.
c.       If these requirements are done, then we can get the Oracle VM tool from internet or from Oracle Site. Searching the same on Google can result.
d.      Once Installation of Oracle VM tool is done. It will create one shortcut on your computer.
e.      Double click the same and you will be fallen to below screen.
f.        Making your system 64 bit is useful, by this we can install 64 bit Linux OS or Windows 64 bit. Else e can go with 32 bit OS of RHEL or Linux or windows.
g.       Below same steps will be followed for 32 bit or 64 bit of OS.

2.   Double click the VM box of oracle. And it will bring you to this screenshot. In my case, I have already made two Linux virtual machines.

3.       Now click new for creating a new machine.

4. Click next on this window and you will be brought to below window.

5.   Now you name your machine as I have given Linux 3, you can keep as you like. And choose the type of OS you want to install. It is just for the naming convention, nothing else. It will not effect whether you will go with Ubuntu, Windows, any Linux, RHEL, etc. I chose RHEL 64 bit.

6.       Now we have to give RAM to our Virtual machine. At my end I have given 1 GB RAM

7.       Click next and decide/chose the virtual Hard disk size on next screen.

8.       Choose the fixed size option and decide the size of disk and location from which drive you want to give the space. As in my case I gave 8 GB from D drive of my system. 

9.       On next screen we can choose the create button to create the machine of 8 Gb space 1 GB RAM. 

10. Virtual machine is ready to use and install Linux or windows on it using DVD or ISO image. 



Tuesday, January 22, 2013

Extending a VG RHEL and HP UX Step by Step

My Dear Friends,

I want to share how we can extend a VG i.e. Volume Group.

HP UX :-

first of all, by running #ioscan -fnC disk from # prompt or with sudo access . we need to detect the disk assigned from Storage or any where or disk added into the bay of the server.

Second :- run #insf -e

Third :- as you detect the disk in ioscan o/p or disk becomes claimed into the server. you can verfiy the same by going into /dev/disk directory. we have to use the persistant device path.

4. Now pvcreate is to be used. #pvcreate /dev/dsk/disk99 and /dev/dsk/disk100. after successfully creation of PV.

5th. Decide which VG you need to increase.

6th. Now vgextend is the command,

#vgextend vg01 /dev/dsk/disk98 /dev/dsk/disk99 /dev/dsk/disk100

this command will add the disk into VG and now after that or the size of  VG should be increased and we can change the same with vgdisplay.

disk99 and disk 100 are the disk whichwe wanted to add into the VG.

Linux :-

The same thing we have to perform. after scanning of the disk, we have to run pvcreate and then vgextend is the command. will be adding into this with an example.

Amit Chopra
Love sharing                                                                                                                                                                                                               

How to change the Hostname RHEL linux ?

Hi Friends,

It is easy to change the hostname on Linux. We can do the same with following commands and edit of the files.

1. #hostname "desired hostname"

hostname is the command which we need to run from # prompt or with sudo access. by doing this you will only be able to see the change for the current session on which you re logged in. As you exit from the system or session. the hostname again will be the same, which it was.

2. The second step is to change the hostname by editing below file :-

vi /etc/sysconfig/network or networking file which will be having entry of HOSTNAME= .............. just type the desired hostname, save it and come out.

3. the 3rd step is to change the hostname in /etc/hosts file, but before editing any file, please ensure backup of the files using "cp -rp" command. and the edit any file.

in /etc/hosts file edit the name which is given infront of the IP, and loop back address.

4. The 4th step is to run the

#service network restart

this command will make the change permanent. now relogin in to the server and check the hostname  should be changed to new one.

Best Regards & amp; love sharing
Amit Chopra


Friday, January 18, 2013

How to install BPPM client on Linux server

Dear Friendz,

Thanks and appreciate your views and visits. A bit of work i did today on BPPM installation. steps and work done is given in detailed below.

What is BPPM :- it is a monitoring tool, which is to monitor the incidents on on any kind of server. It has a patroling agent which monitors the parameter on the server/,

1st Step :- we need to create an image on any linux box. and that same image will be copied to other servers through scp or winsc or using any tool which you use. I copied the same through

#scp -rp /tmp/image/

this image is tranferred then we need to perform below steps.

2nd :- for creation of Image, we need to download the gzip file from BPPM site with specific version of OS like 6.2 incase of mine.
3. gunzip or unzip the same.
4. that will extract some files named as
5. chnage the permission of the file using
chmod 777
6. now run the same and that will open a window and will ask you to open the same through web browser.
you need to click and enter some details about root and its password and patrol user credentials too.
7. some more window will open, you can go with default option in image installation window.
8. once image is created successfully.
9. create patrol user account with

uid=201(patrol) gid=190(patrol)
Steps for installation of BPPM on the Linux server.



1.       Copy the image folder from /tmp folder using scp or winscp. Then


Mount the DVD  of 6.2 64 bit and then install below packages.


First step :-  #yum clean all

                        #yum update all


Install below packages on the server.


#[root@ /]# yum install* compat-libstdc++-33* -y


Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager

Updating certificate-based repositories.

Setting up Install Process

Resolving Dependencies

--> Running transaction check

---> Package compat-libstdc++-33.i686 0:3.2.3-69.el6 will be installed

--> Finished Dependency Resolution


Dependencies Resolved



Package                               Arch                   Version                          Repository                Size



compat-libstdc++-33                   i686                   3.2.3-69.el6                     Server                   189 k


Transaction Summary


Install       1 Package(s)


Total download size: 189 k

Installed size: 716 k

Is this ok [y/N]: y



·         Create patrol user if not created already with below details.

#useradd –m –d /home/patrol –s /bin/bash

#passwd patrol

Password should be :- xxxxxxxxxxx



·         After this.  We have to run the ./ from /image folder in /tmp location. After successful installation. We have to do below steps.



After installation, below are the post installation steps.


Check the shell of Patrol user, if correct then leave else.


If found shell other than /bin/bash for patrol user then Change it to:-


#usermod –s /bin/bash patrol :----- to get into proper directory of patrol user or login into it.


 1)  cd /opt/bmc/Patrol3

 2)  ./ -d  (run as root only)

 3)  ./   (run as root ONLY)

 4)   chmod 777 /usr/adm    (run as root)

 5)   su - patrol  (switch to patrol user)

 6)  ./PatrolAgent -p 3181  (run as patrol)


cd /opt/bmc/Patrol3

./ -d 


chmod 777 /usr/adm

su - patrol    

./PatrolAgent -p 3181


That is it.


[patrol@Patrol3]$ ps -ef |grep -i 3181

patrol   22681     1  0 21:56 ?        00:00:00 PatrolAgent -p 3181

patrol   22713 22628  0 21:58 pts/1    00:00:00 grep -i 3181

[patrol@ Patrol3]$



Thursday, January 17, 2013

Booting to single user mode HP UX

Hi All,

Thanks for your visits and comments. It always feels good to see you on my blog.

Question :- How to boot into single user mode or maintenance mode in HP UX?

To boot the server into single user mode,

1st.  We need to reboot the server and halt in after EFI boot and on HP UX boot.
2nd  As we halt the system into HP UX. we fell into HP UX > i.e. hpux prompt.
3rd  There we have to write

hpux> boot -is

4th. the server will boot the kernel.
5th. you will be fallen to # prompt withour any password/authentication.
6th. At # prompt, now you can start your maintenance work.
7th. For doing some activies like :-

we can get into single user mode.

a. To reset the password of root user, if forgotten or missed or if lost.
b. To edit fstab entry.
c. to edit files like password or shadow file. but for these we have to mount the root file system with below command.

#mount -o remount,rw /  :- this is to mount root file system with read and write access.

# mount -o remount,r /  :- to mount into read only mode.

d. for editing some of the corruption, etc. which is not allowing us to go to OS.

8. after editing or reseting root password, just type reboot or shutdown -ry from # prompt and system will boot to OS.


Booting to single user mode in LINUX

#init 1 :- from root prompt will bring to single user mode.

the if needs to done for reseting password from single user mode. then here we also need a DVD and get into maintenance mode. as the DVD boots up and ask for installation.

I amy not know other method, may be wrong here. if yes then please corrrect me. it will be very help ful for me too.


Thank you so much.

Love all, love sharing knowledge..
Amit Chopra


Tuesday, January 15, 2013

HP UX interview questions Part 1

Hi Friends,

Thanks for the visits. Glad to see your visits always and appreciate your responses. I learnt some questions today about HP UX, which can be asked in an interview.

Question 1. What is the difference between cp command and cpio command.
Answer :- the cpio command copies link files also with it. the same thing is also performed by fbackup tool. but the cp and scp command doesn't copy the link files. due to which application may or may not start due to unavailabilty of links or link files.
but the limit of cpio command is that, it can only be used to copy within the limit of 2 GB. after that it will fail or not do. where cp command leads in this and has no limit to copy data of any size.
  so as per the requirement, we can use this command.

Question 2. What is the meaning of below terms and their work, explain?

1. lock lun
2. lock disk
3. quorum server.
4. Arbitraror node.

how they differ.

Question 3. What are the conditions of Sevricegaurd Cluster failover?

Question 4. What are the important files while creating service gaurd cluster?

Question 5. please mention some commands for service gaurd cluster creation and setup?

Question 6. What is the work of cluster manager and work load manager?

Question 7. At what level or condition we cannot use Lock disk and Lock lun for servicegaurd?

Question 8. What is the command to start a cluster at both nodes and on a single node?

Question 9. what is tie breaking in cluster?

Question 10. What are the things required for creating a cluster?

Thanks and Best regards
Amit Chopra


Query for Strcit allocation Policy on LV

Hi Friends,

This was the error which i got after trying to extend the size of LV. i am not aware of this strict policy on LV or PG. but this is blocking me to extend the size of an LV. where i am having around 70 GB space in my vg00.

I came to know first time today that this policy, we can apply with below command and at the time of installation of server on root disk.

#lvchange -s ";;;;;;;;;"

Error :-

# lvextend -L 35000m /dev/vg00/11203
Warning: rounding up logical volume size to extent boundary at size "35008" MB.
lvextend: Not enough free physical extents available.
Logical volume "/dev/vg00/xxxx" could not be extended.
Failure possibly caused by strict allocation policy

I am trying to read some docs and information on it, will update once get some information.

Friends, you also please try to make me understand about this. how it works and how we have to apply it.

Thanks for the comments and visit.

Love all and Share Knowledge.
Amit Chopra

Monday, January 14, 2013

fsadm got stuck + HP UX

fsadm got stuck and did not give output for long duration. The fsadm command is run to take effect of extension or reduction of a file system.

EXTENSION of a File System

Question :- What is the to command to extend a File system HP UX?
Answer :- we have to use 2 commands :-
first :- lvextend -L "desired total size of LV in mb"  "name of the lv in /dev/vg00/lvolXX"
           fsadm -b  "desired total size of LV in mb" /name of the mount point

if command comes out properly or successfully then just run bdf. the extended size will be in front of you.

REDUCTION of a File system

Question :- What are the command to reduce the size of a file system.
Answer :- first of all be very much carefull while reducing the size of a file system. ensure you have a backup with you, using fbackup or any other too.

first :- fsadm -b "the desired reduced size which you want to keep" /mount point

next :- lvreduce -L "desired reduced size" /dev/vg00/lvolXX

if command comes out properly or successfully then just run bdf. the reduced size will be in front of you.
some times while extension and reduction, the fsadm command takes so much time that it seems it got hanged or the server become unresponsive. let it take its own time. i waited for 25 minute when i reduced 50 GB of spae from a file system. the fsadm didn't response for that duration. i was about to kill the porcess ID, but waited for some more time. it successfully come out and then i ran lvreduce.

if it is like 1 hour or more for waiting then you can kill the fsadm process id, with kill -9 also. and still if the processs is not getting killed then reboot is the option left. this I know, i may be lacking in information or knowledge. but would like to learn more for it.

ps -ef |grep -i fsadm

is the command to get the process ID or parent process ID.


Saturday, January 12, 2013

How to change ext2 to ext3 file system in Linux

Hi All,

Thanks for visiting my blog. It feels good and nice on your every visit.

Today, I learnt changing of ext2 filesystem to ext3 file system. first of all would like to share that, i was not aware of how to make an ext3 file system in RHEL linux. so i learnt that, next i learn how to change from ext2 file system to ext3 file system i.e. migrating to ext3 file sysetm.

method of creating ext2 file system is :-

#pvcreate /dev/sdb

message will appear that pv is created successfully.

#vgcreate vgdb /dev/sdb

by this we are creating vg named as vgdb on /dev/sdb disk of any size.

#lvcreate -L " desired size" -n "name of the desire lv" /dev/vgdb

now the command for creation of ext2 file system comes i.e.

#mkfs /dev/vgdb/"name of the lv"

this will create the file system as ext2, after mounting the file system, you can see the same with

#df -hT

command , this will show the type of file system also.

for mounting the file system, you should have a directory with you. which can be created with.

#mkdir -p /name with location of the directory you want to mount the file system on

# mount /dev/vgdb/lvname /mountpoint or directory created.

Now the point comes to change the filesystem type i.e. from ext2 to ext3.  I know this much haven't learn changing from ext3 to ext2 till now. when i will learn will post.

the command is :-

#tune2fs -j /dev/

this block device you can get from /etc/fstab also, please remember to change the type of file system after running the tune2fs command in /etc/fstab too. so that as system reboot it doesn't find any conflict. and reboots properly.

Thanks for the visit, bye for now. will keep post and always appreciate your visit.

Love all.
Amit Chopra


insf, rmsf and ioscan HP UX

Today, we faced a problem in HPVM. we have earlier assigned some LUNs from EMC storage to our rx8640 host. which is installed in our host server.
we were upto on refresh of our staging servers/ guest. for this we have to assign the Luns to our guest. the command to assign luns to guest as a disk is below :-

#hpvmmodify -p "number of the guest" -a scsi:disk::disk:/dev/rdisk/disk**


#hpvmmodify -p 6 -a disk:scsi:disk:/dev/rdisk/disk88

this command will assign the disk to the guest which is specified or written.

the issue we faced that we were not able to see the meta number given to us by storage team. Storage team checked at their end, but couldn't find the issue. we also checked initially, there were some meta number, later we removed some offline devices which were coming in IOSCAN -fnc DISK. we removed the offline devices or NO_HW devices.

the command for removing devices from the server is :-

# rmsf -H "device" :- example :-

two paths we have to remove  (first we will get from ioscan -fnC disk)

path type 1

#rmsf -H 0/0/0/0.5.0

path type 2 ( this path we will/can get from ioscan -m lun)

#rmsf -H 64000/0xfa00/0x68

then we have to remove the stale devices also. the stale devices.

the command to remove the stale devices is as :-

#rmsf -x

this will list all the stale devices also once if you have removed the devices using rmsf -H command.
if already run the command, then next it may not show any output like shown above.

Remove each and all devices which were earlier if given to Guest and not being used by the guest. please check and verify each and every point using

#vgdisplay -v "name of the vg"

it will represent the PV attached to the VG. so never panic before running rmsf -H/rmsf -x. check each and every device.

after that run ioscan -fnC disk and insf -e which is used to install special files. the rmsf is to remove special files adding -x is to remove stale devices with rmsf. insf -e will list the devices installed with installing special files.

combination of these commands are good and need to be run with proper care also.

#ioscan -m lun
#ioscan -fnC disk
#rmsf -H
#vgdisplay -v
#rmsf -x

ohh forgot to add about, hpvmstatus and hpvmmodify command.

#hpvmstatus :- this command will only show or list the guest which are there in hosts.

#hpvmstatus -P "name of the guest"

the name of the guest, we can get from hpvmstatus. the ablve command will display the disk assigned, CPU given to hosts, RAM given, network devices and other devices assigned to the guest.

it was some troubleshooting we did.

Thanks for visiting my blog, keep enjoying keep learning and sharing.

Love all. god bless all of us.

Amit Chopra


Monday, January 7, 2013

What is the Booting sequence of HP Integrity Server

Hi All,

Below is the short note which i read in HP pdf. this is applicable for RX machines i.e rx 2660, rx 8640 machine.
and i have found this in Interview questions for HP UX also.

Q. 1 What is the booting sequence of HP Integrity server?

Answer :- There are six steps :-

First Step :-     Initialization of Hardware (it is at BIOS level).
Second Step :- EFI & Boot Loader are loaded and run.
Third Step :-    Now Operating System is chosen.
Fourth Step:-   OS loader is loaded and run.
Fifth Step :-     Finally OS iself is loaded and run.
Sixth Step:-     You are at login prompt.

This some what matches with  PA RISC   (HP 9000) as well. but two or more steps are added into it.

Keep Visiting my blog. Thanks for your visit.

Njoy Learning. 

How to make a Softlink in BasicUNIX/RHEL/HP UX

Hi All,

The command to make softlink in Unix is with a very small command :-

ln ;-- link command

ln -s "source file" "destination file"


#ln -s "name of the directory or file which needs to be made a soft link" "name of the file"


# cd  /
#ln -s /var/oracle /tmp/oracle

this will create a softlink in /tmp directory named as oracle of the directory /var/oracle.

will represent as below in tmp

#lrwrwxrwx owner owner oracle --> /var/oracle/

where this soft link can be accessed to access the content of /var/oracle


please correct me if i am wrong , thanks for the visit. please visit again.

Amit Chopra


Wednesday, January 2, 2013

Command to locally install the rpm RHEL

Hi All,

we can install any package locally also, by just copying the single package in /tmp directory or any where as per your choice.

#yum localinstall --nogpgcheck "nameofthepackage with or in current working directory"

example :-

#yum localinstall --nogpgcheck "/tmp/Client-linux-sles11-x86-6.0.101-66.rpm"

with this it will get installed with dependencies also.

Thanks for the visits, Appreciate your responses.

Love Sharing
Amit Chopra